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Glossary

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B

Bottom-up

Language learning that proceeds from the most basic parts of language, such as words, then advances to more complex structures such as complex sentences and grammar, before finally arriving at an understanding of meaning.

Entry link: Bottom-up

Bound Morpheme

A morpheme that cannot stand on its own, but must be attached to another morpheme; the prefixes “un-“ and “re-“ are examples of bound morphemes.

Entry link: Bound Morpheme

C

CALL

Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Includes use of computer-based language programs such as ESL-specific software, educational podcasts, web pages, and CD-ROMs for educational purposes.

Entry link: CALL

Chants

Short repetitive songs or rhythms that can be implemented to introduce or reinforce lesson material for second language students. Educators can use chants in small or whole group activities to help EFL learners become comfortable with the process of language acquisition.

Entry link: Chants

Class Contract

Documentation used to negotiate with your students on the rules for the classroom and the consequences for violating them.

Entry link: Class Contract

Clause

A group of words that always contains a subject and a verb in combination.

Entry link: Clause

Close Exercise

A gap-fill exercise with regularly-spaced gaps (e.g., every sixth word has been deleted).
Entry link: Close Exercise


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