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Glossary

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C

Conjugation

The inflection and various spellings of verbs. Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, or voice.
Entry link: Conjugation

Content-Based Instruction (CBI)

A teaching method that focuses on content or contexts in which students would use English instead of solely focusing on grammar. A topic or theme is chosen and all language aspects are taught through that topic or theme.

Entry link: Content-Based Instruction (CBI)

Cooperative Learning

When students work in small groups toward social and academic learning goals. Small mixed groups allow ESL students to feel at ease while learning English. Peers in the group support the new language learners as they discuss the lesson material in English. The group atmosphere provides a non-threatening environment for students and self-confidence is strengthened.

Entry link: Cooperative Learning

Corrective Feedback

Feedback highlighting (and possibly correcting) student errors in speech, such as mispronunciations or grammatical errors.

Entry link: Corrective Feedback

Course Goals

Larger course aims for an extended period of time as opposed to learning objectives, which usually state what a student will be able to do at the end of a lesson. Course goals are often stated in terms of broad course content and tasks, or what a student will do over the length of a course.

Entry link: Course Goals

Cultural Dimensions

Categories reflecting attitudes in different cultures that can be viewed on scales such as equality vs. hierarchy, direct vs. indirect, individual vs. group, and task vs. relationship.

Entry link: Cultural Dimensions

Culture Shock

A series of stages (honeymoon, culture-shock, adjustment, reverse culture shock) experienced by a person who is immersed in a foreign culture. The length of each stage varies from person to person and depends on previous travel experience, openness to new cultures, and willingness to adjust.

Entry link: Culture Shock

D

Deep Culture

People’s attitudes, beliefs, and core values that constitute the main part of our cultural differences. Some examples include our attitudes toward gender, social status, age, raising children, perception of time, role of family, etc.

Entry link: Deep Culture

Delayed Feedback

Feedback provided after the fact, once a student has finished speaking. It allows a teacher to provide constructive comments without interrupting student speech.

Entry link: Delayed Feedback

Diagnostic Assessment

An assessment instrument or procedure that attempts to diagnose, or identify, a learner’s strengths and weaknesses, typically so that an efficient and appropriate course of instruction can be presented.

Entry link: Diagnostic Assessment


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