ITA Online - Glossary
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The inflection and various spellings of verbs. Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, or voice.
Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
A teaching method that focuses on content or
contexts in which students would use English instead of solely focusing on
grammar. A topic or theme is chosen and all language aspects are taught through
that topic or theme.
When students work in small groups toward social
and academic learning goals. Small mixed groups allow ESL students to feel at
ease while learning English. Peers in the group support the new language
learners as they discuss the lesson material in English. The group atmosphere
provides a non-threatening environment for students and self-confidence is
(and possibly correcting) student errors in speech, such as mispronunciations
or grammatical errors.
Larger course aims for an extended period of
time as opposed to learning objectives, which usually state what a student will
be able to do at the end of a lesson. Course goals are often stated in terms of
broad course content and tasks, or what a student will do over the length of a course.
Categories reflecting attitudes in different
cultures that can be viewed on scales such as equality vs. hierarchy, direct vs.
indirect, individual vs. group, and task vs. relationship.
A series of stages (honeymoon, culture-shock,
adjustment, reverse culture shock) experienced by a person who is immersed in a
foreign culture. The length of each stage varies from person to person and
depends on previous travel experience, openness to new cultures, and
willingness to adjust.
People’s attitudes, beliefs, and core values that
constitute the main part of our cultural differences. Some examples include our
attitudes toward gender, social status, age, raising children, perception of time, role of family, etc.
Feedback provided after the fact, once a student
has finished speaking. It allows a teacher to provide constructive comments without
interrupting student speech.
An assessment instrument or procedure that attempts to diagnose, or identify, a learner’s strengths and weaknesses, typically so that an efficient and appropriate course of instruction can be presented.