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A teacher’s relationship or connection with their students based on learners’ positive feelings for their teacher.


Any objects used in the classroom that bring the class to life (i.e., relate classroom teaching to the real world).

Realistic Materials

Materials that have been developed with the second language learner specifically in mind; they generally accompany ESL/EFL texts or are produced by the teacher for specific students.

Receptive Skills

When the learner is receiving incoming language (listening or reading).


The term used for shortened forms of spoken words. For example, native speakers are likely to pronounce “could have” as “coulda” and “going” to as “gonna” in regular speech.


The style or type of language used within a particular context. For example, ESL/EFL students must learn to distinguish language that is used in formal registers (e.g., job interview of business email) versus language that is used in informal registers (e.g., relaxed situations or communication with friends).


The combination of stressed and unstressed parts of a sentence.

Role Play

An activity during which students imagine themselves in a situation outside the classroom (e.g., in a restaurant), and play the role of someone else (e.g., a waitress), and use language appropriate to this new context. The situation, characters, and problem (task) may be written on role play cards by the teacher to encourage more creative scenarios and better language production.


Establishing classroom routines that allow ESL students to become familiar with what happens in the classroom every day. The repetitive tasks help second language learners to become comfortable in a safe classroom environment. Self-confidence will be gained if these students know the order in which activities occur daily.


Measuring scales that reveal to students what is expected of them on particular assessments. Rubrics list the academic work involved and state the criteria expected for an exemplary score and the criteria for lower scores on assignments.


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